If you intresting in sport {steroids|http://rxsportmeds.com|buy steroids only here it true } you find place where you can find information about steroids Also we can help you win nandrolone decanoate here link for it {nandrolone decanoate | nandrolone decanoate cycle } it realy nice product , also here information about steroids and all nandrolone decanoate products We can recommend this product Deca Durabolin here link for it {Deca Durabolin | buy Deca Durabolin cycle } it realy nice product , also here information about steroids and all Deca Durabolin products We find nice website where you can find many fresh dj mp3 , and other nice music {Fresh mp3 | Download mp3 | Listen music } it realy nice page , you can like it on faceboke , listen music online or download tru torrent or website we can recommend it!

Zipper-merging & traffic as a system

Texas DOT, San AntonioNorthbound on US Interstate 75 near the Ohio-Michigan border last week, I came to a stretch of highway where road repairs necessitated closing all but the right lane. Cars in front began finding openings in the already slowing lane to my right, and all of a sudden I found myself alone with an empty lane stretching perhaps a half a mile ahead. “Uh-oh, they don’t do zipper merges here.”

The problem of merging traffic

Many years back, I observed that when two backed up lanes of traffic are merging into one lane, it is always the merged-into lane that moves the slowest, not the lane that is ending up ahead. One might expect the opposite: that the line of cars in the lane that is ending would move more slowly as drivers try to move into the active lane of traffic. But what in fact is happening is that everyone in the ending lane is trying to merge early at different points in the active lane. And that seeming politeness or prescience actually helps slow the whole process down for everyone.

Car traffic is a system – a fairly linear system, so not too complicated in how it works. However it has properties beyond what the individual driver in its midst can see, and which are unknown to him/her. For example, in heavy but moving highway traffic, if one driver slows by stepping on the brakes, all the drivers following will also have to touch their brakes at that same location for a period of time – even though the reason for the first driver tapping their brakes has long since passed. One name for this is a “traffic wave” (a simple interactive model online shows how it works). I witnessed that phenomenon from an office building overlooking US Interstate 5 one early evening in late 1978. Once you see traffic movement from well outside the driver’s point of view, driving it is not the same.

Zipper merge, aka late merge

Minn DOTI never really thought more about merge dynamics until having to deal daily with one particular highway merge – where Virginia State Route 267 eastbound joins US Interstate 66 – on a commute home in late 2010 and early 2011. The heavy traffic would always be backed up more or less as the two lanes from the 267 spur fed into 66, and the rightmost of those lanes ended.

Of course the same phenomenon mentioned above reproduced regularly, with the merge-into lane – the left one in this case – moving slowly and people trying to pull their vehicles into it at the first opportunity. Except, that is, for a few cars zipping along down the empty right lane and merging up ahead.

Knowing this particular road, I tended to “precrastinate” and be in the left lane well before the merge dynamic began. Then I noticed that if I let someone in early, I might also have to let someone in later on. And there were other dynamics one observed, like the driver ahead letting everyone in in front of him/her. Or in the right lane someone fully stopped well before their lane ended, with their blinker on and a tail of stopped traffic behind them.

I ultimately adopted the tactic of letting no one merge in front of me until the right lane ended (by managing distance, one reduces the perceived opportunity to merge), and then always letting someone in at the merge-point. It was later on that I learned this late merge dynamic has been dubbed the “zipper merge.”

Turns out that in heavy traffic, zipper merging – cars using both (or all) lanes and alternating where one lane ends – can “reduce traffic backups by as much as 40 percent.”

Who’s being polite?

In the US, waiting your turn in line is part of the culture. Cut in a line of people waiting to get to or through something, and folks disapprove, grumble, and maybe publicly mutter their opinion of your action or character. This social norm is functional in many situations such as ticket windows and cafeteria lines.

Highway traffic is different because you can’t do a U-turn to go back to your proper place at the end of the line and wait your turn (imagine the traffic consequences). So drivers tend to want to do the next best thing, which is to merge into the line in the first opportunity. At least that’s better than trying to cut in at the head of the line, right?

For their part, the drivers in the merge-into lane accommodate early merges – after all that seems reasonable and they’ve been on the other side too.

So what you end up with is the dysfunction I observed already years ago: the merge-into lane moving more slowly, and the merge from lane mostly empty except for cars slowing down to merge a soon as they can. And the occasional vehicle zooming down the merge-from lane and out of sight.

Minn DOTThat dysfunction is heightened to the degree that early mergers feel offended by the seeming impoliteness of late mergers (for example, see discussions from 2016 & 2017), and compelled to enforce denial (blocking at the merge point or straddling lanes). This was the potential scenario I had to consider on I-75 the other day, having already passed a lot of early mergers already.

Flipping the norm

Some of the online content about zipper merging plays off the dominant notion that it seems rude:

Apparently efforts to re-educate drivers on this point are having mixed success, at least in the US. My impression is that zipper merging is gaining some traction in the Washington, DC area, but it clearly was not used on the road to Detroit. (A 2016 Business Insider article highlights the experience in Missouri, Kansas, Washington, and Minnesota). From a cursory look at info on other countries, it’s not clear that people in general take that readily to the concept.

Aside from public education, improved signage (either promoting zipper merge or simply not indicating which lane will be closed until later), there are even some efforts to educate children (future drivers). It may take a while to change prevailing attitudes, but it might help to frame the issue in terms of traffic as a system, with dynamics you can best understand by stepping outside of your role as a driver (incidentally the kind of perspective that would inform programming of self-driving vehicles). In the meantime, unfortunately, one can’t expect that trying to use the more efficient zipper merge will necessarily be met with approval.

So on that stretch of I-75, I ultimately played it safe and found a gap in which to semi-early merge. Then one other vehicle sped past to the merge point – and I may have been the only one who didn’t mind.


Sources of images: Texas DOT, via Blogspot (top); Minnesota DOT, via Reddit (middle); Missouri DOT, via Twitter (lower)

Facebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

Earth Day 2018: One family’s small example

This Earth Day I’d like to share some small measures my household has taken and/or does take for the environment. These are not that special (well they were a little bit to us), but such efforts small though they be are not insignificant, especially on the very local level, and if joined by those of others has cumulative value.

Of course individual and even collective efforts to be environmentally responsible pale in comparison to the potential positive or negative effects of policy decisions affecting whole waterways, air quality of entire regions, and vast hitherto unspoiled natural areas. But we have our parts to play.

Composting

For the seven years we were in Falls Church, Virginia, we used a backyard compost pile. Into this went virtually all readily decomposable vegetative matter from the yard – to the extent that I even stripped green leaves off of pruned branches before discarding the latter (this went quickly with garden gloves) – as well as all kitchen scraps (non-animal and non-cooked) from meal preparation. The kitchen scraps were buried in the existing compost to reduce potential smell (which we never found to be a problem). Ashes from the fireplace insert also went into compost. If there was any hint of any animal getting into the compost, I’d add powdered red pepper.

System was 2 pile, with 6 month rotation (each batch having 6 months active,and 6 months curing), and use of the old pile in late autumn and in spring. Mainly on the vegetable garden.

Compost pile. Left was active, then shifted to right in compost ring. Pole separating halves is marked with a red dot.

Lawn serf

We had a very modest front and back yard, which were easy to mow with a manual push mower (once as late as December), which also was a kind of exercise. Grass clippings were allowed to fall back int the lawn (not collected). Some hand weeding – moderately extensive on a couple of summers – with the plants of course going into the compost.

Never put chemicals on it with the exception of a couple of products (one supposedly eco-friendly) in 2011 or 2012 to reduce the mosquito population.

The big autumn leaf-fall went on the curb for pick-up (hand-raked and carried, not blower driven). The payback in Falls Church was leaf mulch offered by the city in the spring.

Yard wood

One ash tree brought down by an ice-storm, one magnolia branch that fell on my car in a thunderstorm, and a range of cut branches over the years from a small but exuberant lot, all were cut for use in the fireplace insert. Only the thin branches and thorny ones would go out for pick-up (again, probably the only household that had those stripped of leaves).

Fireplace insert

We had an insert put into our fireplace to allow for efficient use of firewood. This was expensive, but the year we did it we were able to take advantage of a significant tax deduction. Ultimately it paid for itself, notably one winter when the old furnace gave out and had to be replaced. We used yard wood, in one case a neighbor’s tree that had to be cut, and purchased local wood from felled or cleared trees. (My writing on criteria for “good” biofuel, in 2016 and on Earth Day 2017, were influenced in part by this experience, as well observations from living in rural West Africa.)

Rain barrels

We ultimately had five 50-60 gallon rain-barrels out during the warm months to collect rain for use on the flowering plants and vegetables. This was useful, but it sometimes seemed the barrels were full to overflowing during rainy stretches, but then empty during the dry spells. It is significant how much water one can use on gardens even in a humid temperate zone.

Vegetable garden

We had two 3′ by 11′ raised beds for vegetable gardening (size convenient from four 14′ planks (I think they were 2″ by 8″).  The story of the garden itself would be a whole different write-up, but suffice it to say that it was a mixed success depending on crop, but on balance a lot of production and some very tasty results. The residues were all chopped up into the compost in the fall.

Kitchen

As mentioned above, all kitchen scraps went into compost. For a while we included eggshells as well. These were collected in a double plastic bag held in a small container attached to one of the under-sink doors. So basically things to throw out were: 1) trash (see below); 2) recycling (handled by the city); 3) compost; and 4) the few items that went down the disposal (minimal food waste is fundamental for any environmentally-conscious system).

Cooking is cooking, but since I’m currently living alone, I’ve added an innovation to steam something on top of whatever I’m boiling to get double use from one burner (e.g., pasta below, and broccoli on the steamer insert on top of that pot). Conservation in meals is another topic for another day, however.

Shopping bags, not trash bags

I forget where we started this, but it may have been in China. We have used smaller waste receptacles that permit use of plastic shopping bags or the smaller bags you put loose vegetables in to take to the checkout. We really didn’t need bigger bags even in the kitchen given we recycled or composted so much. I can’t recall buying packages of trashbags except for a specialized packing need almost a decade ago. We also bring reusable bags to market, but it always seems that one collects plastic bags from stores. Some of these handle trash no problem; the rest can be recycled.

Hardly exceptional, any of this, but useful perhaps in illustrating one family’s system, and more or less coherent approach to the proverbial reduce, reuse, recycle.

 

Facebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

Symposium on multilingualism in international organizations & cooperation, 10-11 May 2018

Taking the opportunity again this year to publicize the latest in a series of annual symposia in New York on language issues in international contexts. The last two dealt with language(s) and the Sustainable Development Goals. This year’s edition, to be held on 10-11 May 2018, has as its title, Multilingualism in International Organizations and in International Co-operation.” It is sponsored by the Study Group on Language and the United Nations in cooperation with The Centre for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems, the Center for Applied Linguistics, and Birkbeck, University of London.

The organizers’ description of the event, and their preliminary program follow (the content is theirs; although not connected with the event or any of its sponsors, I’ve taken the opportunity to present this information with added links such as I could find – please advise if any should be replaced):


Multilingualism in International Organizations and in International Co-operation

Thursday & Friday, May 10-11, 2018, at the Church Center, 777 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017 (First Ave. at 44th St.)

Multilingualism in international co-operation entails both costs and benefits: costs because it requires mechanisms such as the selection of multilingual staff and the mediation of language professionals; benefits because, if properly managed, it includes all parties to decision-making, promotes consensus, supports programme delivery, and aids dissemination of results. Thus it favours social justice and inclusion. Increasingly, multilingualism is seen as a positive force, though it is not always recognized as such by all stakeholders.

Within the United Nations, for example, owing in particular to the scarcity of available data, advocates of multilingual language policies often face ideological, financial and administrative resistance, despite a growing recognition that multilingualism, as a core value of the UN, is a potential source of strength.

This symposium seeks to focus on, and generate interest in, these issues. Contributorscription will address the challenges of supporting multilingualism in organizations and in sites of international co-operation across different sectors (e.g. business, diplomacy, economics) and communities. Included will be theoretical and methodological studies, on the one hand, and studies addressing specific practical challenges, on the other – especially papers that focus directly on the work of the UN system or other international bodies, or research having obvious implications for their work.

Among the themes that we hope to address are the following:

  • evolving perceptions of multilingualism in international settings
  • linguistic inclusiveness in multilingual settings
  • interpretation and translation in international organizations
  • speed of decision-making vs. information loss in monolingual contexts
  • language in international peace-keeping
  • language and human/minority rights
  • the economics of language regimes
  • linguistic equity in organizations
  • inclusive communication in local and international development
  • language policy in international organizations
  • language and sustainability
  • multilingualism and NGOs

PRELIMINARY PROGRAM (as of April 4)
Speakers will include:

Keynote speaker:

Michele Gazzola, Research Fellow, Humboldt University, Berlin
The economic effects of language regimes: The case of the World Intellectual Property Organization and the European Patent Office

Papers and presentations will include:

John Edwards (St Francis Xavier University and Dalhousie University, Canada)
Language claims & language rights

Timothy Reagan (University of Maine, USA)
Sign language multilingualism: The forgotten language diversity in disempowered communities

Emma Asonye (University of Mexico), Ezinne Emma-Asonye (University of Mexico), Queenette Okwaraji (University of Rochester, USA) and Khadijah Asili (Vizionz-Sankofa)
Linguistic diversity and the language rights of the underprivileged population in Africa and America: Towards an inclusive society in 2030

Nirvana Bhatia (Linguistic Rights Specialist)
The paper chase: A review of the UN’s recent language-rights legislation

Phindile Dlamini (University of Swaziland)
Swaziland’s dream of linguistic representation in international organisations: Will the sociolinguistic map of the United Nations ever change?

Maneeratana Sawasdiwat Na Ayutthaya (ASEAN Center for Multilingualism, Translation & Interpretation, Thailand)
Multilingualism, translation and interpretation in the ASEAN Community

Leigh Swigart (Brandeis University, USA)
English at the International Criminal Court: Working language or default language?

Beatrice Owiti (Kenya Methodist University)
Interpretation and translation in the International Criminal Court

Lisa McEntee-Atalianis (Birkbeck, University of London, UK), Michele Gazzola and Torsten Templin (Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany)
Measuring diversity in multilingual communication

Francis M. Hult (Lund University, Sweden)
Parallel language use: A Nordic solution for multilingual organisations?

Dorte Lønsmann (Copenhagen Business School, Denmark) & Janus Mortensen (University of Copenhagen)
English only? A critical examination of the ‘natural’ status of English as a corporate language

Spencer Hazel (Newcastle University, UK), Katherine Kappa and Kamilla Kraft (University of Copenhagen)
Language policing in international organisations: Explicit and embedded orientations to language repertoires and their impact on professional identity

Pia Decarsin (JPD Systems Translation Services)
Language policy in international organisations: Criteria and recommendations for strategic content selection for translation

Mirna Soares Andrade (Inter-American Defense College, Washington, D.C.)
Multilingualism and language services at the Inter-American Defense College

Shana Pughe Dean (Tone Translate, Utica, NY, USA))
Creating opportunity and understanding in a multicultural world on the move: Refugee resettlement agencies

Carol Benson (Teachers College, Columbia University, USA)
The importance of a multilingual habitus when assessing literacy skills in educational development

Erina Iwasaki (Teachers College, Columbia University, USA)
Reframing multilingualism in terms of opportunity

Ari Sherris (Texas A & M University-Kingsville, Texas, USA) & Joy Kreeft Peyton (Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, D.C.)
The power of multilingualism and multiliteracy for languages and groups

Additional information and registration at http://www.languageandtheun.org


For information, below are links to posts on this blog regarding the 2016 and 2017 events:

Facebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

An International Year of Millets?

India is celebrating 2018 as its National Year of Millets. This follows a proposal by the government of India to the United Nations (UN) in late 2017 to make 2018 the International Year of Millets (which I’ll abbreviate IYOM). The purpose of IYOM would have been to highlight the importance of diverse millets for for farmers, for nutrition, and for food production in the wake of effects of climate change. Evidently, and unfortunately, that proposal was too late in the year to set the machinery in motion to organize an international observance of this sort in the following year.

The question at this point is what is the possibility of organizing a future international observance for these important but not fully appreciated grains. Will India’s experience with its current National Year of Millets help generate interest for an eventual IYOM, or take the steam off that proposal? Or will it lead to a year with a related but broader topic, covering something like “underutilized crops”?

It will take some time to know the answers. In the meantime, here’s some information on what has and hasn’t happened with respect to both the national and international years.

India’s National Year of Millets, 2018

The purpose of the National Year in India is similar to that mentioned above for the IYOM. One apparent concern is that even as millets are adapted to diverse conditions and have good nutritional profiles, cultivation of them has declined significantly relative to the main grain crops like wheat and rice.

OMITF-2018In January, the southwest Indian state of Karnataka – a major producer of several types of millet – held a previously planned Organics and Millets International Trade Fair in Bengaluru (logo featured at right). But it is not clear from available information what actions are being planned specifically for the year. At such time as more information is available, I will post about it.

India is a veritable crossroads of millets – cultivating most of the millet species grown in diverse parts of the world, and even exporting some. So its success with its National Year of Millets will be important to watch.

Background on the IYOM proposal

As for the IYOM proposal, apparently the agricultural ministers of India (Radha Mohan Singh) and of Karnataka state (Krishna Byre Gowda) first brought up the idea with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) last October. The formal national government level proposal, in the form of a letter from Minister Singh to the UN Secretary General (António Guterres), came a month later.

Soon the Hyderabad, India-based International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) joined in, with a graphic presentation on the proposed IYOM and support for Minister Singh’s letter. The “Indian Father of the Green Revolution,” Prof. M.S. Swaminathan tweeted his support. Supposedly other countries were interested. But stepping back to look at the planning and lead time given for other international year observances, this idea, however laudable, did not have enough time to generate the support, means, and thinking needed to put together a successful world-wide observance for 2018.

According to the UN, most observances such as international years “have been established by resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly [UNGA], although some have been designated by UN specialized agencies.” So perhaps FAO could have declared a year of millets, though as Minister Gowda was quoted as saying already last October, “The FAO is of the view that it takes time to decide.” One would imagine that a decision by the UNGA to establish such an observance would carry more weight, since it speaks for the whole UN. However the UNGA only meets for a limited time each year, and its agenda is usually set several months in advance. Of the three International Year observances scheduled for 2019, one – Indigenous Languages – was decided in a UNGA resolution in late 2016, and the other two – Moderation and the Periodic Table – were set in late 2017. Talking must have begun at least a year earlier in each case. Looking at the calendar, some observances are scheduled already scheduled for 2022 and 2024.

In any event, as of 4 February 2018 (the most recent update I could find online), Minister Gowda is quoted as saying that they are still awaiting a response from the UN about the IYOM proposal.

Apparently one of the reasons 2018 was proposed for IYOM was that there were no other observances scheduled for that year. However, the same is true for 2020, and moving the proposed IYOM to that year would probably allow enough time to put together a successful campaign and observance for these important but often overlooked grains.

Facebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

International Mother Language Day 2018 & the Linguapax Prize

The annual observance of International Mother Language Day (IMLD) on February 21 focuses this year on multilingualism and linguistic diversity, with mention of their importance for sustainable development and peace. The theme has been seen in several forms, including:

  • Acting together for Linguistic diversity and Multilingualism (per poster above)
  • Linguistic diversity and multilingualism count for sustainable development (as seen on the program for the IMLD event at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris)
  • Linguistic diversity and multilingualism: keystones of sustainability and peace (as seen on the UNESCO website)

In her message on the occasion of IMLD, UNESCO director Audrey Azoulay characterized the importance of languages in this way:

A language is far more than a means of communication; it is the very condition of our humanity. Our values, our beliefs and our identity are embedded within it. It is through language that we transmit our experiences, our traditions and our knowledge. The diversity of languages reflects the incontestable wealth of our imaginations and ways of life.

2018 Linguapax Prize to BASAbali

The annual Linguapax Prize, which recognizes contributions to “preservation of linguistic diversity, revitalization and reactivation of linguistic communities, and the promotion of multilingualism,” is traditionally announced on IMLD. This year’s prize was awarded to BASAbali, an organization founded in 2011 to support and develop the Balinese language of Indonesia, and to develop language revitalization methods.

BASAbali’s founder, Alissa Stern, is quoted on the Linguapax site as describing the group as follows:

BASAbali is founded in the belief that all languages, but most importantly a language of a great culture such as Balinese, deserve recognition and use in the modern world — and not be relegated to a language of rural farmers or a language of home, not worthy of activities associated with learning, public affairs and local educational and political practices. The aim, in short, is to develop facilities that will enable Balinese and other local languages to occupy a position of prestige alongside modern national and international languages and to carry forward their rich cultural traditions.

Facebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

Concluding 2017, looking forward to 2018

This year has been one of some personal transitions, hence less posting on this blog than originally planned. As 2017 comes to a close, I wanted to touch on a couple of topics among several related to the blog content.

IY2017First, 2017 is the U.N. Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development. Usually I try to get out quick mentions of such observances early in the year, but this time had planned a longer treatment mentioning two places I know in different ways – Djenné, Mali and Lijiang, Yunnan, China. That material will have to come out later in different form. However the topic of this year will remain important even as the calendar changes.

Early in the year, I posted several “why are we doing this?” (WAWDT) questions about policies that seemed ill-considered. That is, beyond the level of agreement or disagreement on particulars, but questions about the soundness of decisions from whatever viewpoint. Very quickly it became apparent that any attempt to continue such inquiries would become all-consuming. That in itself is a comment. In any event, I’m not planning any further WAWDTs for now.

Looking forward to a productive 2018, and sharing ideas and information here on Multidisciplinary Perspectives.

 

Facebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestlinkedintumblrmail